He is known as the Father of History and any respectable historian to write about the Pashtoons refers to his writings. Herodotus lived between 480 and 425 BC in Greece and whatever he heard about the Greek and the Persian wars of antiquity, wrote. Later these writings were put together in Nine Books and translated in European languages. Here are the parts about the Pashtoons. The exact translation is in italics.
In Book 3 at the time of Greek invasion, and in the army of Persia there are various groups described by their dress and appearance.
The Dadicae and the Aparytae…who were all reckoned together, paid a tribute of 170 talents. This was the seventh Satrapy. From Bactrian tribes as far as the Aegli, a tribute received was 360 talents. This was the 12th Satrapy. From Pactyica, Armenia and the countries reaching thence to the Euxine the sum drawn was 400 talents. This was the 13th Satrapy. The Scans and Caspians gave 200 and fifty talents which was the 15th Satrapy. The Parthians, Choramians, Chorasmians, Sogdians and Arians,,,paid 300. This was the 16th Satrapy. The Indians who are numerous than any other nation, exceeded that of every other people and paid 300 talents of gold dust. This was the 20th Satrapy.
Herodotus believes that Caspatyrus river is Indus, but it was River Kabul.
Xexres sent his men to Indus which has Crocodiles… They started their journey from the city of Caspatyrus in the Region called Pactyica and sailed down.
In book 3 Chapter 102 he writes after the Brahmans of India that …besides these there are Indians of another tribe who border on the city of Caspatyrus and the country of Pactyica, these people dwell northwards of all the rest of the Indians and follow nearly the same mode of life as the Bactrians. They are more warlike than any of the other tribes and from them the men are sent forth who go to procure gold. For it is in this part of India that the sandy deserts lies.
In book 3 Chapter 117 Herodotus writes,
There is plain in India which is shut in on all sides by a mountain range and in this mountain range are five openings. The plain lies on the confines of Chorasmians, Hyrcanians, Parthians, Sarangians and Thamanaeans and belonged formerly to the first mentioned ( Chorasmians) of these people. Ever since the Persians, however obtained the mastery of Asia, it has been the property of the great king (Cyrus) A mighty river called the Aces flows from the hills enclosing the plain and this stream formerly splitting in to five channels, ran through the five openings in the hills and watered the lands of the five nations which dwell around. The Persians came however and conquered the region and then it went ill with the people of these lands. The great king blocked up all the passages between the hills with dykes and floodgates and so prevented the water from flowing out. Then the plane within the hills became a sea for the river kept rising and the water could find no outlet.
From that time the five nations which were wont formerly to have the use of stream losing their accustomed supply of water have been in great distress. In winter indeed they have rain from heaven like the rest of the world but in summer after sowing their millet and their sesame they always stood in need of water from the river. When therefore, they suffer from this want, hastening to Persia, men and women alike. They take their station at the gate of the king’s palace and wail aloud. Then the king orders the flood gates to be opened towards the country, whose need is greatest and lets the soil drunk until it has had enough, after which the gates on this side are shut and others are unclosed for the nation which of the remainder needs it most. It has been told me that the king never gives the order to open the gates till the suppliants have paid him a large sum of money over and above the tribute.
The plane and the 5 openings are probably a fable but the origin of the tale may be found in the distribution of water by the Persian government, most likely of Hari Rode. At the time when Xexres attacked Athens, the description of the army is in such details.
The Arians carried Medians bows, but in other respects were equipped like Bactrinas. The Commander was Siasmmes the son of Hydarnes. The Parthians and Chorasmians with the Sogdians the Gandarians and the Dadicae had the Bactrian equipment in all respects. The Parthians and Chorasmians were commanded by Artabazus the son of Pharnaces, the Sogdians by Aznanes the son of Artaeus and the Gandarians and Dadicae by Artyphius the son of Artabanus.
Book 7 Chapter 85 has a description of a peculiar people.
The wandering tribe has known by the name of Sagartians; a people Persian in language and in dress half Persian half Pactyan who furnished to the army as many as eight thousand horses. It is not the wont of this people to carry arms; either of bronze or steel, except only a Derk; but they use lassoes(ropes) made of Thongs plaited together and trust to these whenever they go to the wars. Now the manner in which they fight is the following. When they meet their enemy straight away they discharge their lassoes, which end in a noose, then whatever the noose encircles, be it man or be it horse, they drag towards them and the foe, entangled in the toils is forthwith slain
The description could be about the tribes living in Khorasan and most probably around Kandahar where warriors moved on horseback even in the 19th Century.
The Father of History- Translation-Rawlinson in 1858. Wordsworth Classics of World Literature. Introduction-Tom Griffith 1996-Chatam-Kent